Experience Sampling Method (ESM)


Experience sampling is a method for collecting experiences “in situ” and immediately, thus there is no disturbance because of memory effects.


Participants get ESM questions on a specific device and have to answer these questions.


in situ data no disturbance by memory effects especially emotions can be captured well


requires high compliance from participant, rather high effort for participants

References describing the method

Larson, R., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. 1983. The experience sampling method. In H. T. Reis (Ed.),
Naturalistic Approaches to Studying Social Interaction. New Directions for Methodology of Social and Behavioral Science, Vol. 15: 41-56. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

References about quality of the method

Csikszentmihalyi M, Larson R. 1992. Validity and reliability of the Experience Sampling Method. See deVries 1992, pp. 43–57.

ScollonCN, Kim-Prieto C, Diener E. Experience sampling:promise and pitfalls, strengths and weaknesses. J Happiness Studies 2003,4:5-34.


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